Almost all categories of disabilities have an organization that maintains a Web site with considerable information instructors may find helpful. If you are not certain of a student's diagnosis, you may call the ARC. They will share that information if the student has indicated that such information may be given to instructors.

Universal Design of Instruction

Bowe. F. (2000). Universal design in education: Teaching nontraditional students. Westport CN: Bergin & Garvey.

Center for applied special technology (CAST). Summary of universal design and learning concepts.

Lazzaro, J. (1993). Adaptive Technologies for learning and work environments. Chicago: American Library Association.

Rose, D.H. & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning . Alexandria VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.

Multiple Intelligences

Amrein, A.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, March 28). High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning.  Educational Policy Analysis Archives10(18) [On-Line]. Available at

Campbell, C., Campbell, B. & Dickson, D. (2003). Teaching and learning through multiple intelligences (Third Edition) . New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Gardner, H. (1991). Assessment in context. In B.R. Gifford and M.C. O'Connor (eds.)Changing assessments: Alternative views of aptitude, achievement, and instruction.Boston: Klluwer.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.  

Kornhaber,, M., Fierros, & Veenema. (2004). Multiple intelligences: Best ideas from research and practice. New York: Pearson-Allyn and Bacon.

Learning Styles

Dunn , R., & Stevenson, J. M. (1997). Teaching diverse college students to study with a learning-styles prescription. College Student Journal, 331-339.

Lefrancois, Guy R. (2000). Psychology for teaching. Canada: Wadsworth.

McKeachie, W. J. (1999). McKeachie's teaching tips: Strategies, research and theory for college and university teachers (10th ed.), Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Sternberg, R.J. & Zhang. L. F. (2000). Perspectives on cognitive, learning, and thinking styles.  Mahway, N.J. Earlbaum.

Academic Resource Center

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